Archive for Family: Vitaceae

Tetrastigma dichotomum

Tetrastigma dichotomum Planch.

Status: Native; Critically Endangered.

Recent Synonyms: Cissus dichotoma Bl.

Growth Form or Habit: Dioecious, woody climber.

IMG_0001
2008.

IMG_0003
2008.

IMG_0002
2008.

Leaves: Leaf simple or 3-foliolate, simple leaf elliptic, apex acuminate, base obtuse, 8.5–10 cm by 3.5–5 cm, terminal leaflet of compound leaf elliptic, apex acuminate, base decurrent, 5.5–9.5 cm by 2.5–4.5 cm, petiolule 1.5–2 cm long, lateral leaflet elliptic, apex acuminate, base decurrent, 5–10 cm by 2–5.5 cm, petiolule 8–10 mm long, margin toothed, petiole, jointed, 2.5–6 cm long, lamina coriaceous, glabrous.

IMG_0002
2008.

Stem: Stem round, up to 1.2 cm in diameter, lenticellate, tendril bifurcate, leaf-opposed, characteristic of all members of the family.

Flowers: Inflorescence a dichotomous cyme, peduncle 4.7–5.4 cm long. 

Fruits: Berry ellipsoid, 12–22 mm by 6–10 mm, usually 1 seed per fruit; seed oblong ca. 12 mm by 5 mm.

Habitat: Hill dipterocarp forests fringe.

Occurrence: Quarry Road, Bukit Timah Nature Reserve.

Distribution: Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo.

References:

Latiff, A. 1983. Studies in Malesian Vitaceae, 7. The genus Tetrastigma in the Malay Peninsula. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore, 36(2): 213–228.

Yeo, C.K. 2001. The Vitaceae and Leeaceae of Singapore. Honours Thesis, National University of Singapore. 96 pp.

Leave a Comment

Cayratia novemfolia

Cayratia novemfolia (Wall. ex Laws.) Burk.

Recent Synonyms: Vitis novemfolia Wall. ex Lawson in Hooker f.; Cissus novemfolia (Wall. ex Lawson) Planch.

Status: Native; Critically endangered.

Growth Form or Habit: Herbaceous climber..

P1030234
Central Catchment Nature Reserve; 2010.

P1030235
Central Catchment Nature Reserve; 2010.

Leaves: 5–9-foliolate, margin crenate; terminal leaflet lamina, elliptic to lance-shaped, apex acuminate, base acute, 8.5–18.5 cm by 2–4.5 cm, petiolule 1.5–7 cm long, lateral leaflet lamina lance-shaped, apex acuminate, base obliquely cuneate, 4–16.5 cm by 1.5–5 cm, petiolule 0.5–4.5 cm long; lamina sparsely hairy, iridescent, petiole 3–11 cm long.

Stem: Stem up to 1 cm across, glabrous, corky with age, tendril 3-furcate, opposite leaf, characteristic of all members of the family.

Flowers: In a dichotmous cyme without tendril, inserted in leaf axil, peduncle from ca. 13 cm long.

Fruits: Berry globose, 2–3 cm across, with 2–4 seeds per fruit; seed 1.5 cm by 1 cm.

Habitat: Lowland dipterocarp and other forest types.

Occurrence: Nee Soon swamp forest.

Distribution: Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, the Philippines.

References:

(1) Latiff, A. 1981. Studies in Malesian Vitaceae, 5. The genus Cayratia in the Malay Peninsula. Sains Malaysiana 10(2): 129–139.

(2) Yeo, C.K. 2001. The Vitaceae and Leeaceae of Singapore. Honours Thesis, National University of Singapore. 96 pp.

Leave a Comment

Nothocissus spicifera

Nothocissus spicifera (Griff.) Latiff

Recent Synonyms: Cissus specifera Griff., Ampelocissus specigera (Griff.) Planch., Vitis macrostachyus Miq..

Status: Native; Critically endangered.

Growth Form or Habit: Woody climber.

Leaf upper surface
Central Catchment Nature Reserve; Secondary forest edge; 2010.

Leaf underside
Central Catchment Nature Reserve; Secondary forest edge; 2010.

Leaves: Lamina ovate-oblong to oblong, margin serrate, apex acuminate to caudate, base tending to acute terminating sub-cordate, 6–16 cm by 2–10 cm, glabrous, glabarescent on veins abaxially, coriaceous and red when young, chartaceous with age, petiole 2–7.5 cm long, red when young.

Stem: Stem glabrous, at times laterally ridged, red when young, flattening and corky with age, up to ca. 5 cm wide, tendril simple, red when young, leaf-opposed, characteristic of all members of the family.

Flowers: In a pendant, simple or branched raceme without tendril, 40–58 cm long, terminal, rarely leaf-opposed, peduncle if present up to ca. 4 cm long. Flowers in fascicles, sub-sessile to pedicellate.

Fruits: Berry globose ellipsoid, 15–18 mm by 8–11 mm, with 1–2 seeds per fruit; seed oblong, ca. 12 by 6 mm.

Habitat: Lowland dipterocarp forest fringe and opening, and along rivers.

Occurrence: Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Central Catchment Nature Reserve.

Distribution: Peninsular Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo.

References:

(1) Latiff, A. 1982. Studies in Malesian Vitaceae, 2. Nothocissus: A new Malesian genus. Federation Museums Journal 27: 70–75.

(2) Yeo, C.K. 2001. The Vitaceae and Leeaceae of Singapore. Honours Thesis, National University of Singapore. 96 pp.

Leave a Comment

Cissus repens

Cissus repens Lam.

Recent Synonyms: Vitis repens W. & Arn.

Status: Native; Critically endangered. Cultivated.

Growth Form or Habit: Woody climber.

Habit
National University of Singapore; Cultivated; 2010.

Leaf upper surface
National University of Singapore; Cultivated; 2010.

Leaf lower surface
National University of Singapore; Cultivated; 2010.

Tendrils
National University of Singapore; Cultivated; 2010.

Leaves: Lamina broad ovate, margin serrate, apex acuminate, base cordate, 3.5–8.5 cm by 2.5–8 cm, glabrous, chartaceous to coriaceous, petiole 5–8 cm long.

Stem: Stem glabrous, sometimes glaucous to corky with age, swollen and brittle at nodes, often rooting adventitiously, up to ca. 3 cm across, tendril simple, rarely branched in the form of reduced inflorescence, leaf-opposed, characteristic of all members of the family.

Flowers: In a umbellate cyme without tendril, leaf-opposed, peduncle ca. 0.8 cm long.

Fruits: Berry globose, ca. 5 mm by 6 mm, ripening black, with 1 seed per fruit; seed ca. 4 mm across.

Habitat: Lowland dipterocarp and swamp forests fringe.

Occurrence: Pulau Ubin, Orchard Boulevard.

Distribution: India, Myanmar, Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Malesia.

References:

(1) Latiff, A. 1981. Studies in Malesian Vitaceae, 6. The Malay Peninsula species of Cissus L. Malayan Nature Journal 35: 197–207.

(2) Yeo, C.K. 2001. The Vitaceae and Leeaceae of Singapore. Honours Thesis, National University of Singapore. 96 pp.

Comments (1)

Tetrastigma leucostaphylum

Tetrastigma leucostaphylum (Dennst.) Alston ex Mabb

Recent Synonyms: Cissus leucostaphyla Dennst., Cissus lanceolaria Roxb., Tetrastigma lanceolarium (Roxb.) Planch.

Status: Presumed extinct.

Growth Form or Habit: Dioecious, woody climber.

Leaves
National University of Singapore; Cultivated; 2010.

Leaf
National University of Singapore; Cultivated; 2010.

Leaves: Leaf 3-foliolate to 5–7-foliolate, terminal leaflet lanceolate, apex acuminate, base acute, 13.5–20.5 cm by 4–9.5 cm, petiolule 2.5–3.5 cm long, lateral leaflet lanceolate, apex acuminate, base rounded, 6–13.5 cm by 2.5–6.5 cm, petiolule 0.5–2.5 cm long, margin obscurely dentate, petiole 6.5–11.5 cm long, lamina glabrous, coriaceous.

Stem: Stem round when young, up to 4 cm in diameter, flatten, tuberculate with age, 6–11 cm wide, tendril bifurcate, leaf-opposed, characteristic of all members of the family.

Flowers: Inflorescence a dichotomous cyme, peduncle 4–5 mm long, staminate flowers ca. 2 mm long, pistillate flowers ca. 5 mm long.

Fruits: Berry globose, 15–20 mm across, 1–2 seeds per fruit; seed oblong ca. 12mm by 6 mm.

Habitat: Lowland and Hill dipterocarp forests fringe.

Occurrence: Nee Soon Swamp Forest and other parts of Central Catchment Nature Reserve.

Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Java.

Symbiosis: Host of Rafflesia hassletii.

Reference:

(1) GRIN Taxonomy for Plants

(2) Latiff, A. 1983. Studies in Malesian Vitaceae, 7. The genus Tetrastigma in the Malay Peninsula. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 36(2): 213–228.

(3) Yeo, C.K. 2001. The Vitaceae and Leeaceae of Singapore. Honours Thesis, National University of Singapore. 96 pp.

Leave a Comment

Leea rubra

Leea rubra Blume ex Spreng.

Recent Synonyms: Leea polyphylla Miq.; Leea brunoiana Clarke; Leea linearifolia Clarke.

Status: Native; Extinct. Cultivated.

Growth Form or Habit: Shrub.

Leaves
National University of Singapore; Cultivated; 2010.

Winged petiole
National University of Singapore; Cultivated; 2010.

Leaves: Leaf 2–4-pinnate, leaflet lamina ovate to ovate-oblong, apex acuminate, margin crenate to dentate, base rounded to cuneate, 3–10.5 cm by 2–4 cm, lamina chartaceous, minutely hairy along veins; rachis red, winged, up to 16-28 cm long; stipules quickly caducous, broad, up to 2–4 cm by 3–5 cm, glabrous; petiole red, 9–12 cm long; pearl gland, globose, colourless, found on young leaves and shoots.

Stem: Stem up to 3 m tall, branches red and often ridged when young.

Flowers: Inflorescence a compact pedunculate cyme, ca. 10 cm across, peduncle 3–8 cm long; flowers red, disc white.  

Fruits
Hort Park; Cultivated; 2010.

Fruits: Berry oblate, ca. 8 mm across, ripens purple-black, 4–6 seeds per fruit; seed ca. 4 mm by 4 mm.

Habitat: Primary and secondary forests and villages to 1700 m.

Occurrence: BTNR, CCNR, and in spontaneous forests on main and large offshore islands.

Distribution: India, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, Malesia excluding the Philippines except Palawan, northern Australia.

Reference:

(1) Latiff, A. 1989. Vitaceae. Tree Flora of Malaya 4: 479–484.

(2) Ridsdale, C.E. 1974. A revision of the family Leeaceae. Blumea 22: 57–100.
 
(3) Ridsdale, C.E. 1976. Leeaceae. Flora Malesiana Series 1 7: 755–782.

(4) Yeo, C.K. 2001. The Vitaceae and Leeaceae of Singapore. Honours Thesis, National University of Singapore. 96 pp.

More pictures can be found at

(1) The Plant Observatory website

Leave a Comment

Cissus hastata

Cissus hastata Miq.

Recent Synonyms: Vitis hastata Miq.

Status: Crytogenic.

Growth Form or Habit: Herbaceous climber.

Habit
Khatib Bongsu; Secondary forest edge; 2010.

Leaves
Punggol; Secondary forest edge; 2010.

Leaves: Lamina ovate to lacelolate, margin serrate, apex acuminate, base auriculate, cordate to hastate, 2–15.5 cm by 1.5–8 cm, glabrous, coriaceous, often red along margin and lamina lower surface, petiole 1.5–3.2 cm long.

Stem: Stem quadrialate, wings often red, up to 1 cm across, glabrous when young, glaucous to corky with age, tendril 2-furcate, red, leaf-opposed, characteristic of all members of the family.

Flowers: In a umbellate cyme without tendril, 1–2.5 cm across, leaf-opposed, peduncle 1.5–2 cm long. Flower ca. 5 mm across, petals cream adaxially, red abaxially.

Flower buds
Punggol; Secondary forest edge; 2010.

Fruit
Khatib Bongsu; Secondary forest edge; 2010.

Fruits: Berry globose, ca. 5 mm across, ripening red to black, with 1 seed per fruit; seed ca. 4 mm by 3 mm.

Habitat: Secondary forest fringe, inbaited area and wasteland.

Occurrence: Widespread as a weed, uncommon in better qulaity forest.

Distribution: India, Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, Malesia.

References:

(1) Latiff, A. 1981. Studies in Malesian Vitaceae, 6. The Malay Peninsula species of Cissus L. Malayan Nature Journal 35: 197–207.

(2) Yeo, C.K. 2001. The Vitaceae and Leeaceae of Singapore. Honours Thesis, National University of Singapore. 96 pp.

More pictures can be found at

(1) The Plant Observatory website

Leave a Comment

Older Posts »